Papers We have Written

Here you'll find an archive of all the papers we have published that are related to Piccolo, it's predecessor toolkits, or zoomable user interfaces in general.

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Author Title Year Journal/Proceedings Reftype DOI/URL
Bederson, B. A Zooming Web Browser 1996 9th Annual ACM Symposium on User-Interface Software and Technology   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: The World Wide Web (WWW) is becoming increasingly important for business, education, and entertainment. Popular web browsers make access to Internet information resources relatively easy for novice users. Simply by clicking on a link, a new page of information replaces the current one on the screen. Unfortunately however, after following a number of links, people can have difficulty remembering where they've been and navigating links they have followed. As one's collection of web pages grows...
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson1996,
  author = {Benjamin Bederson},
  title = {A Zooming Web Browser},
  booktitle = {9th Annual ACM Symposium on User-Interface Software and Technology},
  year = {1996},
  url = {https://webmail.csic.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo/learn/papers/spie-96-webbrowser.pdf}
}
Bederson, B. & Boltman, A. Does animation help users build mental maps of spatial information? 1999 Information Visualization, 1999.(Info Vis' 99) Proceedings. 1999 IEEE Symposium on   article URL  
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson1999,
  author = {Bederson, BB and Boltman, A.},
  title = {Does animation help users build mental maps of spatial information?},
  journal = {Information Visualization, 1999.(Info Vis' 99) Proceedings. 1999 IEEE Symposium on},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {28--35},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=801854}
}
Bederson, B., Grosjean, J. & Meyer, J. Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics 2004 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING   misc DOI  
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze toolkit designs for building graphical applications with rich user interfaces, comparing polylithic and monolithic toolkit-based solutions. Polylithic toolkits encourage extension by composition and follow a design philosophy similar to 3D scene graphs supported by toolkits including Java3D and OpenInventor. Monolithic toolkits, on the other hand, encourage extension by inheritance, and are more akin to 2D Graphical User Interface toolkits such as Swing or MFC. We...
BibTeX:
@misc{Bederson2004,
  author = {B. Bederson and J. Grosjean and J. Meyer},
  title = {Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics},
  journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {535--546},
  doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TSE.2004.44}
}
Bederson, B., Grosjean, J. & Meyer, J. Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics 2004 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING   article URL  
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze toolkit designs for building graphical applications with rich user interfaces, comparing polylithic and monolithic toolkit-based solutions. Polylithic toolkits encourage extension by composition and follow a design philosophy similar to 3D scene graphs supported by toolkits including Java3D and OpenInventor. Monolithic toolkits, on the other hand, encourage extension by inheritance, and are more akin to 2D Graphical User Interface toolkits such as Swing or MFC. We...
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson2004a,
  author = {Bederson, B.B. and Grosjean, J. and Meyer, J.},
  title = {Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics},
  journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {535--546},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo/learn/Toolkit_Design_2004.pdf}
}
Bederson, B., Hollan, J., Perlin, K., Meyer, J., Bacon, D. & Furnas, G. Pad++: A Zoomable Graphical Sketchpad For Exploring Alternate Interface Physics 1996 Journal of Visual Languages and Computing   article URL  
Abstract: We describe Pad++, a zoomable graphical sketchpad that we are exploring as an alternative to traditional window and icon-based interfaces. We discuss the motivation for Pad++, describe the implementation and present prototype applications. In addition, we introduce an informational physics strategy for interface design and briefly contrast it with current design strategies. We envision a rich world of dynamic persistent informational entities that operate according to multiple physics specifically designed to provide cognitively facile access and serve as the basis for the design of new computationally-based work materials.
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson1996a,
  author = {Bederson, B.B. and Hollan, J.D. and Perlin, K. and Meyer, J. and Bacon, D. and Furnas, G.},
  title = {Pad++: A Zoomable Graphical Sketchpad For Exploring Alternate Interface Physics},
  journal = {Journal of Visual Languages and Computing},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {7},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3--32},
  url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1045926X96900026}
}
Bederson, B., Hollan, J., Stewart, J., Rogers, D., Druin, A. & Vick, D. A Zooming Web Browser 1997 Human Factors in Web Development   article URL  
Abstract: The World Wide Web (WWW) is becoming increasingly important for business, education, and entertainment. Popular web browsers make access to Internet information resources relatively easy for novice users. Simply by clicking on a link, a new page of information replaces the current one on the screen. Unfortunately however, after following a number of links, people can have difficulty remembering where they've been and navigating links they have followed. As one's collection of web pages grows...
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson1997,
  author = {Bederson, B.B. and Hollan, J.D. and Stewart, J. and Rogers, D. and Druin, A. and Vick, D.},
  title = {A Zooming Web Browser},
  journal = {Human Factors in Web Development},
  year = {1997},
  url = {https://webmail.csic.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo/learn/papers/spie-96-webbrowser.pdf}
}
Bederson, B. & McAlister, B. Jazz: An Extensible 2D+ Zooming Graphics Toolkit in Java 1999 University of Maryland Computer Science Tech Report CS-TR   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson1999a,
  author = {Bederson, B.B. and McAlister, B.},
  title = {Jazz: An Extensible 2D+ Zooming Graphics Toolkit in Java},
  journal = {University of Maryland Computer Science Tech Report CS-TR},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {4015}
}
Bederson, B. & Meyer, J. Implementing a zooming user interface: experience building Pad++ 1998 Softw. Pract. Exper.   article DOI URL  
BibTeX:
@article{Bederson1998,
  author = {Ben Bederson and Jon Meyer},
  title = {Implementing a zooming user interface: experience building Pad++},
  journal = {Softw. Pract. Exper.},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {28},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1101--1135},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/pad++/papers/spe-98-padimplementation/spe-98-padimplementation.ps.gz},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-024X(199808)28:10<1101::AID-SPE190>3.0.CO;2-V}
}
Bederson, B. B. PhotoMesa: a zoomable image browser using quantum treemaps and bubblemaps 2001 UIST '01: Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology   inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: PhotoMesa is a zoomable image browser that uses a novel treemap algorithm to present large numbers of images grouped by directory, or other available metadata. It uses a new interaction technique for zoomable user interfaces designed for novices and family use that makes it straightforward to navigate through the space of images, and impossible to get lost.PhotoMesa groups images using one of two new algorithms that lay out groups of objects in a 2D space-filling manner. Quantum treemaps are designed for laying out images or other objects of indivisible (quantum) size. They are a variation on existing treemap algorithms in that they guarantee that every generated rectangle will have a width and height that are an integral multiple of an input object size. Bubblemaps also fill space with groups of quantum-sized objects, but generate non-rectangular blobs, and utilize space more efficiently.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson2001,
  author = {Benjamin B. Bederson},
  title = {PhotoMesa: a zoomable image browser using quantum treemaps and bubblemaps},
  booktitle = {UIST '01: Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {71--80},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/502348.502359}
}
Bederson, B. B. & Hollan, J. D. Advances in the Pad++ zoomable graphics widget 1995 TCLTK'98: Proceedings of the 3rd conference on USENIX Third Annual Tcl/Tk Workshop   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: We describe Pad++, a zoomable graphical sketchpad that we are exploring as an alternative to traditional window and icon-based interfaces. We discuss the motivation for Pad++, describe the implementation, and present some of the differences between Pad++ and the standard Tk Canvas widget.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson1995,
  author = {Benjamin B. Bederson and James D. Hollan},
  title = {Advances in the Pad++ zoomable graphics widget},
  booktitle = {TCLTK'98: Proceedings of the 3rd conference on USENIX Third Annual Tcl/Tk Workshop},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {4--4},
  url = {http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/tcl95/full_papers/bederson.pdf}
}
Bederson, B. B. & Hollan, J. D. Pad++: a zooming graphical interface for exploring alternate interface physics 1994 UIST '94: Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology   inproceedings DOI URL  
Abstract: We describe the current status of Pad++, a zooming graphical interface that we are exploring as an alternative to tradhional window and icon-based approaches to interface design. We discuss the motivation for Pad++, ...
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson1994,
  author = {Benjamin B. Bederson and James D. Hollan},
  title = {Pad++: a zooming graphical interface for exploring alternate interface physics},
  booktitle = {UIST '94: Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {17--26},
  url = {http://www.graphics.cs.columbia.edu/courses/csw4170/resources/bedersonHollanUIST94.pdf},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/192426.192435}
}
Bederson, B. B., Hollan, J. D., Druin, A., Stewart, J., Rogers, D. & Proft, D. Local tools: an alternative to tool palettes 1996 UIST '96: Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology   inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson1996b,
  author = {Benjamin B. Bederson and James D. Hollan and Allison Druin and Jason Stewart and David Rogers and David Proft},
  title = {Local tools: an alternative to tool palettes},
  booktitle = {UIST '96: Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {169--170},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/237091.237116}
}
Bederson, B. B., Hollan, J. D. & Stewart, J. An Agnostic Approach to Scripting Languages 1996   misc URL  
Abstract: We describe a generic approach to connect any number of interpreted scripting languages to a library. We implemented this technique with Pad++ so that complete access to Pad++ is now available through Scheme and Perl as well as Tcl/Tk. INTRODUCTION Ask any two programmers what their favorite computer languages are and you will likely end up with a very intense debate. Indeed, developers' feelings about programming languages are almost religious in nature. With the current proliferation of...
BibTeX:
@misc{Bederson1996c,
  author = {Benjamin B. Bederson and James D. Hollan and Jason Stewart},
  title = {An Agnostic Approach to Scripting Languages},
  year = {1996},
  url = {ftp://ftp.cs.unm.edu/pub/pad++/languages.ps.gz}
}
Bederson, B. B., Meyer, J. & Good, L. Jazz: an extensible zoomable user interface graphics toolkit in Java 2000 UIST '00: Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology   inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In this paper we investigate the use of scene graphs as a general approach for implementing two-dimensional (2D) graphical applications, and in particular Zoomable User Interfaces (ZUIs). Scene graphs are typically found in three-dimensional (3D) graphics packages such as Sun's Java3D and SGI's OpenInventor. They have not been widely adopted by 2D graphical user interface toolkits. To explore the effectiveness of scene graph techniques, we have developed Jazz, a general-purpose 2D scene graph...
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson2000,
  author = {Benjamin B. Bederson and Jon Meyer and Lance Good},
  title = {Jazz: an extensible zoomable user interface graphics toolkit in Java},
  booktitle = {UIST '00: Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {171--180},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/354401.354754}
}
Bederson, B. B., Stead, L. & Hollan, J. D. Pad++: advances in multiscale interfaces 1994 CHI '94: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems   inproceedings DOI URL  
Abstract: We have implemented an infinite resolution multimedia sketchpad as a base for exploring a stream-of-conscious- ness model of computation where information creating, sharing and retrieval becomes so intuitive that the ...
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bederson1994a,
  author = {Ben B. Bederson and Larry Stead and James D. Hollan},
  title = {Pad++: advances in multiscale interfaces},
  booktitle = {CHI '94: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {315--316},
  url = {https://web.archive.org/web/20061126065505/http://wiki.lri.fr:8000/fondihm/_files/pad-chi94-bederson.pdf},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/259963.260379}
}
Combs, T. T. A. & Bederson, B. B. Does zooming improve image browsing? 1999 DL '99: Proceedings of the fourth ACM conference on Digital libraries   inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Combs1999,
  author = {Tammara T. A. Combs and Benjamin B. Bederson},
  title = {Does zooming improve image browsing?},
  booktitle = {DL '99: Proceedings of the fourth ACM conference on Digital libraries},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {130--137},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/313238.313286}
}
Druin, A., Stewart, J., Proft, D., Bederson, B. & Hollan, J. KidPad: a design collaboration between children, technologists, and educators 1997 CHI '97: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems   inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Druin1997,
  author = {Allison Druin and Jason Stewart and David Proft and Ben Bederson and Jim Hollan},
  title = {KidPad: a design collaboration between children, technologists, and educators},
  booktitle = {CHI '97: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {463--470},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/258549.258866}
}
Furnas, G. W. & Bederson, B. B. Space-scale diagrams: understanding multiscale interfaces 1995 CHI '95: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems   article DOI URL  
BibTeX:
@article{Furnas1995,
  author = {George W. Furnas and Benjamin B. Bederson},
  title = {Space-scale diagrams: understanding multiscale interfaces},
  booktitle = {CHI '95: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems},
  publisher = {ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {234--241},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo/learn/papers/chi-95-spacescale.pdf},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/223904.223934}
}
Good, L. & Bederson, B. CounterPoint: Creating Jazzy Interactive Presentations 2001 HCILTechReport   article URL  
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce Counterpoint, a zooming presentation tool. CounterPoint supports the construction of slide show style presentations with content arrangement in a 2.5D space. As with other Zoomable User Interfaces, CounterPoint provides animated navigations as transitions through this space. Our tool also supports both automated sequential paths and interactive navigation through the presentation. Multiple paths may also be defined within a single presentation space. This paper...
BibTeX:
@article{Good2001,
  author = {Good, L. and Bederson, B.},
  title = {CounterPoint: Creating Jazzy Interactive Presentations},
  journal = {HCILTechReport},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {2001--03},
  url = {ftp://ftp.cs.umd.edu/pub/hcil/Reports-Abstracts-Bibliography/2001-03html/2001-03.htm}
}
Hightower, R. R., Ring, L. T., Helfman, J. I., Bederson, B. B. & Hollan, J. D. Graphical multiscale Web histories: a study of padprints 1998 HYPERTEXT '98: Proceedings of the ninth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia : links, objects, time and space---structure in hypermedia systems   inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: We have implemented a browser companion called PadPrints that dynamically builds a graphical history-map of visited web pages. PadPrints relies on Pad++, a zooming user interface (ZUI) development substrate, to display the history-map using minimal screen space. PadPrints functions in conjunction with a traditional web browser but without requiring any browser modifications. We performed two usability studies of PadPrints. The first addressed general navigation effectiveness. The second focused ...
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hightower1998,
  author = {Ron R. Hightower and Laura T. Ring and Jonathan I. Helfman and Benjamin B. Bederson and James D. Hollan},
  title = {Graphical multiscale Web histories: a study of padprints},
  booktitle = {HYPERTEXT '98: Proceedings of the ninth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia : links, objects, time and space---structure in hypermedia systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {58--65},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/276627.276634}
}
Hornbæk, K., Bederson, B. B. & Plaisant, C. Navigation patterns and usability of zoomable user interfaces with and without an overview 2002 ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact.   article DOI  
Abstract: The literature on information visualization establishes the usability of interfaces with an overview of the information space, but for zoomable user interfaces, results are mixed. We compare zoomable user interfaces with and without an overview to understand the navigation patterns and usability of these interfaces. Thirty-two subjects solved navigation and browsing tasks on two maps. We found no difference between interfaces in subjects' ability to solve tasks correctly. Eighty percent of the subjects preferred the interface with an overview, stating that it supported navigation and helped keep track of their position on the map. However, subjects were faster with the interface without an overview when using one of the two maps. We conjecture that this difference was due to the organization of that map in multiple levels, which rendered the overview unnecessary by providing richer navigation cues through semantic zooming. The combination of that map and the interface without an overview also improved subjects' recall of objects on the map. Subjects who switched between the overview and the detail windows used more time, suggesting that integration of overview and detail windows adds complexity and requires additional mental and motor effort.
BibTeX:
@article{Hornbaek2002,
  author = {Kasper Hornbæk and Benjamin B. Bederson and Catherine Plaisant},
  title = {Navigation patterns and usability of zoomable user interfaces with and without an overview},
  journal = {ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact.},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {362--389},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/586081.586086}
}
Meyer, J., Perlin, K., Bederson, B. & Hollan, J. Two document visualization techniques for zoomable interfaces 1995   article  
Abstract: We have developed two interactive document visualizations in Pad++, an environment for exploring zooming techniques for interfaces. The first is a page-based elliptical view that shows an entire document simultaneously and provides multiple navigation mechanisms. We have used it to develop a tutorial document. The second technique employs an inverted triangle view so that any size document can be presented in the same amount of space. Access is via zooming rather than panning.
BibTeX:
@article{Meyer1995,
  author = {J. Meyer and K. Perlin and B. Bederson and J. Hollan},
  title = {Two document visualization techniques for zoomable interfaces},
  year = {1995}
}
Perlin, K. A multiscale approach to interactive display organization 1991 Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology Workshop   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Perlin1991,
  author = {Perlin, K.},
  title = {A multiscale approach to interactive display organization},
  journal = {Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology Workshop},
  year = {1991}
}
Perlin, K. & Fox, D. Pad: an alternative approach to the computer interface 1993 SIGGRAPH '93: Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques   inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: We believe that navigation in information spaces is best supported by tapping into our natural spatial and geographic ways of thinking. To this end, we are developing a new computer interface model called Pad. The ongoing Pad project uses a spatial metaphor for computer interface design. It provides an intuitive base for the support of such applications as electronic marketplaces, information services, and on-line collaboration. Pad is an infinite two dimensional information plane that is shared among users, much as a network file system is shared. Objects are organized geographically; every object occupies a well defined region on the Pad surface. For navigation, Pad uses &quot;portals &quot;- magnifying glasses that can peer into and roam over different parts of this single infinite shared desktop; links to specific items are established and broken continually as the portal's view changes. Portals can recursively look onto other portals. This paradigm enables the sort of peripheral activity generally found in real physical working environments. The apparent size of an object to any user determines the amount of detail it presents. Different users can share and view multiple applications while assigning each a desired degree of interaction. Documents can be visually nested and zoomed as they move back and forth between primary and secondary working attention. Things can be peripherally accessible. In this paper we describe the Pad interface. We discuss how to efficiently implement its graphical aspects, and we illustrate some of our initial applications.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Perlin1993,
  author = {Ken Perlin and David Fox},
  title = {Pad: an alternative approach to the computer interface},
  booktitle = {SIGGRAPH '93: Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {57--64},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/166117.166125}
}
Plaisant, C., Grosjean, J. & Bederson, B. SpaceTree: supporting exploration in large node link tree, design evolution and empirical evaluation 2002 Information Visualization, 2002. INFOVIS 2002. IEEE Symposium on   article URL  
Abstract: We present a novel tree browser that builds on the conventional node link tree diagrams. It adds dynamic rescaling of branches of the tree to best fit the available screen space, optimized camera movement, and the use of preview icons summarizing the topology of the branches that cannot be expanded. In addition, it includes integrated search and filter functions. This paper reflects on the evolution of the design and highlights the principles that emerged from it. A controlled experiment showed benefits for navigation to already previously visited nodes and estimation of overall tree topology.
BibTeX:
@article{Plaisant2002,
  author = {Plaisant, C. and Grosjean, J. and Bederson, BB},
  title = {SpaceTree: supporting exploration in large node link tree, design evolution and empirical evaluation},
  journal = {Information Visualization, 2002. INFOVIS 2002. IEEE Symposium on},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {57--64},
  url = {https://web.archive.org/web/20130424032820/https://www.cs.umd.edu/Library/TRs/CS-TR-4360/CS-TR-4360.pdf}
}
Stewart, J., Raybourn, E. M., Bederson, B. & Druin, A. When two hands are better than one: enhancing collaboration using single display groupware 1998 CHI '98: CHI 98 conference summary on Human factors in computing systems   inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Stewart1998,
  author = {Jason Stewart and Elaine M. Raybourn and Ben Bederson and Allison Druin},
  title = {When two hands are better than one: enhancing collaboration using single display groupware},
  booktitle = {CHI '98: CHI 98 conference summary on Human factors in computing systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {287--288},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/286498.286766}
}
Suh, B. & Bederson, B. OZONE: A Zoomable Interface for Navigating Ontology Information 2002 Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2002) ACM Press   article URL  
Abstract: We present OZONE (Zoomable Ontology Navigator), for searching and browsing ontological information. OZONE visualizes query conditions and provides interactive, guided browsing for DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language) ontologies. To visually represent objects in DAML, we define a visual model for its classes, properties and relationships between them. Properties can be expanded into classes for query refinement. The visual query can be formulated incrementally as users explore class and...
BibTeX:
@article{Suh2002,
  author = {Suh, B. and Bederson, B.B.},
  title = {OZONE: A Zoomable Interface for Navigating Ontology Information},
  journal = {Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2002) ACM Press},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {139--143},
  url = {http://hcil.cs.umd.edu/trs/2001-04/2001-04.html}
}
Suh, B., Ling, H., Bederson, B. & Jacobs, D. Automatic thumbnail cropping and its effectiveness 2003 Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology   article URL  
Abstract: Thumbnail images provide users of image retrieval and browsing systems with a method for quickly scanning large numbers of images. Recognizing the objects in an image is important in many retrieval tasks, but thumbnails generated by shrinking the original image often render objects illegible. We study the ability of computer vision systems to detect key components of images so that intelligent cropping, prior to shrinking, can render objects more recognizable. We evaluate automatic cropping...
BibTeX:
@article{Suh2003,
  author = {Suh, B. and Ling, H. and Bederson, B.B. and Jacobs, D.W.},
  title = {Automatic thumbnail cropping and its effectiveness},
  journal = {Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology},
  publisher = {ACM Press New York, NY, USA},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {95--104},
  url = {https://web.archive.org/web/20130424015854/https://www.cs.umd.edu/Library/TRs/CS-TR-4469/CS-TR-4469.pdf}
}
Wardrip-Fruin, N., Meyer, J., Perlin, K., Bederson, B. & Hollan, J. A zooming sketchpad, a multiscale narrative: Pad++, PadDraw, Gray Matters 1997 SIGGRAPH '97: ACM SIGGRAPH 97 Visual Proceedings: The art and interdisciplinary programs of SIGGRAPH '97   article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Wardrip-Fruin1997,
  author = {Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Jorn Meyer and Ken Perlin and Ben Bederson and Jim Hollan},
  title = {A zooming sketchpad, a multiscale narrative: Pad++, PadDraw, Gray Matters},
  booktitle = {SIGGRAPH '97: ACM SIGGRAPH 97 Visual Proceedings: The art and interdisciplinary programs of SIGGRAPH '97},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {141},
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/259081.259227}
}

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